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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 15-19

Pneumococcal Infection in Nigeria: Preparing for the vaccine

Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, Bayero University and Aminu Kano University Hospital, Kano, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Garba Iliyasu
Infectious Disease Unit, Department of Medicine, Bayero University Kano/ Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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Background: The Pneumococcus is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), sporadic bacterial meningitis, and bacteremia worldwide. It is an important public health concern throughout the world with global burden in causing disease and deaths comparable to that of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malaria, and tuberculosis. Nigeria accounts for 5% of the total global burden. Many of these morbidity and mortality could be averted with the use of pneumococcal vaccine, which is shown to be highly effective. This review is set out to highlight the burden of pneumococcal infection (PI) in Nigeria, its attendant mortality, antibiotic resistance, and the rational for the need to introduce routine pneumococcal vaccination. Materials and Methods: Relevant literatures were reviewed from medical journals, library search, and internet source. Other relevant websites like Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI), WHO were also visited as source for information. The key words employed were: pneumococcal infection, Nigeria, and vaccine. Results: Several studies have shown high burden of PI and high prevalence of antibiotic resistant Pneumococcus in Nigeria. Mortality rate has also been shown to be high and the need for effective implementation of pneumococcal vaccine into routine childhood vaccination program has been underscored. Conclusion: Prevention of pneumococcal disease and death is achievable only if efforts to deliver and implement prevention in regions with the greatest burden of disease are successful. National Primary Healthcare Development Agency (NPHCDA) should introduce either pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)-13 or PCV-10 through GAVI support to eligible children and at risk adult all over the country. As these new vaccines are introduced, it is imperative that we conduct surveillance to document changes, positive or negative, which occur in disease epidemiology. This entails continuing surveillance pre- and post-vaccine introduction, assessing resistance, changes in invasive PI (IPI), serotypes, and any replacement.

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