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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 175-178

Assessment of oral polio vaccine coverage in the Nigeria demographic and health surveys 1990, 1999, 2003, and 2008

1 Department of Community Medicine; Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
2 Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
3 Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
4 Department of Human Physiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
5 Department of Human Physiology, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Aisha Ahmed Abubakar
Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2384-5147.172446

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Introduction: By 1988, when the Global Polio Eradication Initiative began, there was an estimated 350,000 cases of poliomyelitis were occurring annually worldwide. By 2015, due to global vaccination efforts, indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus had been eliminated from all countries, except Afghanistan and Pakistan. A cornerstone of the polio eradication strategy is achieved by ensuring high levels of routine immunization coverage with 3 doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV) in children <1 year. Routine OPV coverage was assessed including some of the factors affecting coverage including region, place of residence, and mother's level of education. Methods: Secondary dataset analysis of the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey carried out in Nigeria in 1990, 1999, 2003, and 2008 with available datasets was conducted. Results: Lowest coverage rates of 9%, 11%, 11% for 1999, 2003, and 2008, respectively, were recorded for the Northwest of Nigeria. OPV 0 coverage was twice that in urban areas compared to rural areas in 1999 and 2003 (42% vs. 19.91% in 1999 and 35.35% vs. 18.35% in 2003). OPV 0 coverage in children of mothers with no education was 12% in 1999, 2003, and 2008 compared to children of mothers with a tertiary education that were 56% in 1999, 50% in 2003, and 81% in 2008. Conclusion: OPV coverage was generally lower in the Northern region and in rural areas. Children of mothers with lower levels of education were less likely to receive OPV. Campaigns to improve routine immunization coverage should be targeted to the Northern regions, rural areas, and mothers with low educational levels.

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