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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 205-209

Primary tuberculosis in a nomadic Fulani population and their cattle herds in Kano, Nigeria: a one health approach

1 Department of Medicine, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano; Department of Medicine, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
3 Department of Medicine, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria
4 Department of Community Medicine, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
5 Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
6 College of Medical Sciences, Northwest University, Kano, Nigeria
7 Department of Paediatrics, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
8 Department Medical Microbiology, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Hamza Muhammad
Department of Medicine, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ssajm.ssajm_40_16

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Background: Nigeria has a large population of Fulani pastoralists. Zoonotic infections like bovine tuberculosis (TB) are common among nomadic Fulani and their livestock. Close interaction between the nomads and their animals provide a critical human–animal interface with potential for transmission of zoonoses. We conducted a survey to determine the prevalence of primary TB infection among nomads and their cattle in Kano, north-western Nigeria. Materials and Methods: We performed tuberculin skin test (TST) to all inhabitants of the nomadic setting and a randomly selected population of their cattle. We obtained sociodemographic information and symptoms of pulmonary TB in both respondents and their cattle. We explore knowledge of respondents regarding risk of disease transmission between them and their livestock. We compare rates of TST among the respondents and the cattle. Participants with features of active TB were referred for further evaluation and treatment. Results: Out of 244 individuals evaluated, 103 (42.2%) were females with a median age (range) of 35 years (1–80 years). Among 167 participants who consented for and returned for TST reading, 45 (26.9%) were positive; 33 (73.3%) of which were between 20 and 50 years of age. A total of 29 (11.9%) respondents reported having cough for at least 3 weeks at the time of the study. Of the 244 participants interviewed, 51 (20.9%) reported having animals with chronic cough. A total of 26 (12.7%) of the 204 cattle tested had positive TST. Majority of the respondent (71%) were aware of potential risk of transmission of infectious diseases between them and their herds. Conclusion: High TST positivity among the nomads of economically viable age and their herds suggests that TB is prevalent in their communities with potential for animal–human transmission. TB and other infectious diseases control programs should capture nomads in their planning and implementation.

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