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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 79-86

Risk factors for Group B streptococcal infection among women attending antenatal clinic in a tertiary health institution in Edo State, Nigeria

1 Department of Primary Health Care, Akoko-Edo Local Government Council, Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Primary Health Care, Owan East Local Government Council, Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria
3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria
4 Department of Micobiology, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Innocent O Alenoghena
Department of Primary Health Care, Owan East Local Government Council, Edo State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ssajm.ssajm_39_16

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Introduction: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonisation of the anus, rectum and/or vagina in pregnant women is a known risk factor for GBS neonatal infection with high morbidity and mortality as a result of pneumonia and septicaemia mainly and less commonly from meningitis, bone and joint infections, cellulitis, otitis media, conjunctivitis, pleural empyema, peritonitis, endocarditis and deep abscess. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the proportion women with risk factors for Group B streptococcal infection and the association between the risk factors and recto-vaginal colonisation with GBS among women attending antenatal clinic. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Irrua specialist Teaching Hospital, South-South geo-political zone of Nigeria. A total population study was conducted among 234 pregnant women who attained 35–37 weeks gestation, and those who were admitted for preterm labour at earlier gestations were involved in the study. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, United States). Results: A total of 234 respondents were assessed in this study. Most respondents had tertiary education (53.4%). The risk factors for GBS were present in the following proportions: not living with their partners, 21.8%, previous miscarriage(s) 10.7% and multiple pregnancies, 5.6%. Other risk factors included previous preterm births, 7.7%, and preterm rupture of membranes. There was a statistically significant (P = 0.001) association between respondents’ history of previous miscarriages and GBS colonisation. There was no statistically significant association between GBS colonisation and diabetes mellitus (P = 1.000), multiple sexual partners (P = 0.425), rupture of membranes >18 (P = 0.623) and preterm labour (P = 1.000). Conclusion: The proportion of clients with risk factors for GBS colonisation was moderate (compared with other sub-Saharan countries). Identified risk factors in favour of the higher rates of GBS colonisation included frequent sexual intercourse while previous miscarriage, previous preterm birth, diabetes in pregnancy, where associated with lower rates of colonisation. There was a statistically significant relationship between the GBS status and a history of previous miscarriage (P = 0.001) and a history of previous preterm birth (P = 0.229). Guidelines on the prevention and management of GBS infection for clients attending antenatal clinics and delivery should be made available at all levels of care by regulatory agencies in Nigeria. There should be health education at all levels of care by the Federal, State and Local Government on preventing of and control GBS infection, especially at the community level.

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