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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 37-44

Impaired cognition and normal cardiometabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes in Kano, Nigeria

Department of Human Physiology, Bayero University Kano, Kano, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Isyaku G Mukhtar
Department of Human Physiology, Bayero University Kano, Kano
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ssajm.ssajm_19_18

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Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been linked with impaired cognition, elevated blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. However, these findings have not been uniform. Aim: This study aimed to assess cognition and its relation with fasting blood sugar (FBS), HbA1c, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in T2D patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four T2D patients attending the diabetic clinic of Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital, Kano, between June and December 2017 and age, sex, and level of education matched controls were recruited for the study. All participants were screened for depression using Beck’s depression inventory II. Cognitive function was assessed using Montreal Cognitive Assessment test (MoCA) version 7.3. Blood pressure was measured using mercury sphygmomanometer (Dekamet Accoson®, Harlow, Essex, UK) and Littman’s stethoscope. FBS was measured using glucometer (On Call® Plus; Alan Lab. Inc., San Diego, California, USA) after an overnight fast. HbA1c was determined using ion exchange chromatography and serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol were determined spectrophotometrically. Data were analyzed on Statistical Package for Social Scientists version 23.0. P value ≤0.05 was considered significant. Results: Diabetic group had significantly lower MoCA score (U = 216.50, P = 0.001) compared to the controls (19.5 and 26.0, respectively). MoCA score was influenced by sex (U = 88.0, P = 0.05), level of education (X2 = 12.826, P = 0.005), and;Deg;BM;Deg;I (X2 = 8.529, P = 0.036) among diabetic patients. MoCA score was correlated with level of education of the diabetic patients (X2 = 14.664, P = 0.002). Duration of diabetes, FBS, and HbA1c had no relationship with MoCA score. The diabetic patients had statistically (U = 416.50, P = 0.048) lower serum triglycerides compared to the control group (132.5 and 155.5 mg/dl, respectively) even though both were within normal limits. Serum HDL (16.65 and 16.80 mg/dl, respectively), LDL (123.2 and 115.7 mg/dl, respectively), total cholesterol (165.20 and 164.0 mg/dl, respectively),;Deg;SB;Deg;P, DBP,;Deg;MA;Deg;P, and;Deg;BM;Deg;I were not significantly different between the two groups and were within normal limits. Conclusion: The diabetics had impaired cognition and normal cardiometabolic parameters. Routine screening for mild cognitive impairment should be employed in the management of T2D.

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