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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 45-51

Effect of CD4 T-lymphocyte count and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection stage on the prevalence and pattern of rheumatologic disease in HIV-infected patients in Zaria, North-Western Nigeria

1 Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
AbdulAziz Umar
Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, PMB 06, Shika, Zaria, Kaduna State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ssajm.ssajm_1_18

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Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a scourge of the modern time. Occurring with high frequency in patients of all ages and both genders, and across all strata of the society, HIV being a systemic disease can affect the musculoskeletal system, and therefore, musculoskeletal disease maybe a presenting symptom of HIV infection. There is paucity of research on the effect of different stages of HIV and CD4 T-lymphocyte count on HIV rheumatological manifestations among Nigerian patients. This study aims at evaluating the effect of CD4 T-lymphocyte count and the stages of HIV on the prevalence and pattern of rheumatological disease in Nigerian patients with HIV infection. Objective To determine the effect of CD4 T-lymphocyte count and HIV stage on the occurrence and pattern of rheumatologic diseases among patients attending HIV clinic at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria. Materials and Methods Between February 2011 and March 2012, 200 HIV-seropositive patients [consisting of 100 patients on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and 100 cART naïve patients] and 200 age and gender-matched HIV-negative controls were screened for the presence of rheumatologic disease, using a validated interviewer administered questionnaire. Information gathered on patients included sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors for HIV infection, clinical and laboratory parameters. CD4 T-lymphocyte of HIV patients and controls were quantified using flow cytometry method. CD4 categorization of patients was performed using the Centre for Disease Control Criteria, and HIV staging was done using World Health Organization criteria. Those with rheumatologic diseases were diagnosed using the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria or, where not available, other well validated rheumatological classification criteria. Data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences window software version 17.0. A P value of <0.05 was used as level of significance. Results Rheumatological disease was diagnosed in 56 (28%) of HIV-positive patients and 15 (7.5%) of HIV-negative control. The odd ratio for occurrence of rheumatologic disease in HIV-positive patients compared to control was 4.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.61–8.82, P = 0.001]. In 3% of HIV infected patients, rheumatologic disease was the reason for their 1st presentation. The spectrum of rheumatic disease seen in HIV-positive patients is as follows: HIV-associated polyarthritis in 13 (16.5%) patients, polyarthralgia in 10 (5%) patients, undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy and reactive arthritis in nine (4.5%) patients each, septic arthritis in five (2.5%), and Tuberculosis (TB) of the spine and pyomyositis in three (1.5%) patients each. CD4 T-lymphocyte count and HIV stages were independent determinants of HIV-associated rheumatologic disease. Conclusion Rheumatologic diseases occur more frequently in HIV-seropositive patients compared to HIV-negative controls, and low CD4 T-lymphocyte counts and advanced HIV stage are associated with higher prevalence of rheumatologic diseases.

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